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Ackee, Akee, Vegetable Brain

Scientific name: Blighia sapida

Ackee, a red pear-shaped fruit, is the national fruit of Jamaica and the dish, Ackee and Saltfish, is regarded as  Jamaica's national dish.

Ackee turns red and splits open when mature. It is then harvested and the edible portion (the arilli) removed in preparation for cooking. The flesh is poisonous when unripe or overripe. Because of this problem, there was some initial difficulty in getting the United States to allow the importation of ackee.

Ackee is mild in flavor, has a creamy texture, and tastes like scrambled eggs. Ackee and Saltfish is made from ackee, saltfish (salt cod), onions, hot peppers, tomatoes, and spices, often garnished with crisp bacon and fresh tomatoes.

Numerous other dishes are made with ackee: curried ackee, ackee and shrimp, ackee salad, ackee with cheese, ackee and ochro, ackee and crab etc

Ackee contains calcium, iron, potassium, Zinc, Vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin,  niacin, folacin, vit C and dietary fiber


Arrowroot
Scientific name: Maranta arundinacea

Arrowroot is a bland and easily digested starch extracted from the roots of the arrowroot plant. It is used as a thickener in many foods such as puddings and gravies, and is also used in cookies, biscuits, cakes and other baked goods.

Arrowroot has limited nutritional value. It is almost pure carbohydrate and and has no protein.

St. Vincent and the Grenadines has a long history of arrowroot production.


Avocado, Avocado Pear, Alligator Pear, Pear

Scientific Name: Persea Americana


The fruit of the avocado tree is generally roundish, pear-shaped or egg-shaped. It consists of a large seed, surrounded by a thick fleshy pulp and leathery skin. In the Caribbean, three types of avocado are common – Mexican, West Indian and Guatemalan. The fruits are generally green, except for the Guatemalan type which is brownish.


Avocados have a pleasant nutty flavor. They may be used alone (with lime or lemon juice, or with salad dressing), in salads with other vegetables, or as an ingredient in numerous dishes. The pulp of the fruit matures into a buttery consistency and may be cream to bright yellow in color.


Avocados have high nutritive value and are used all over the world in dishes both savory and sweet. The Mexican dip, guacamole, is a growing favorite. Vegetarians make good use of the fruits, which are high in valuable fats, potassium, B vitamins, Vitamin E, Vitamin K and fiber.

With the use of special techniques the avocado tree can be grown indoors, and be used as a decorative houseplant. However, cats, dogs, and other domestic animals can be seriously harmed if they ingest the fruit, leaves or other parts of the avocado tree.


Banana, fig, green fig

Scientific name: Musa sapientum

The term banana usually refers to sweet, ripe, yellow bananas, which are in the main eaten fresh and uncooked. Bananas come in a variety of sizes and colors when ripe, including yellow, purple, and red. However, unripe green bananas are sometimes cooked. The most marketed banana is the Cavendish banana.

There are hundreds of species of banana. Most of them are green in color when young and unripe, then yellow when ripe, then brown and black as they age further.

Banana fruits develop large hanging clusters or bunches, made up of tiers (called hands). Hands are composed of individual banana fruits that are often called fingers.  

Bananas are very popular in the Caribbean. There are numerous ways of processing and presenting bananas in meals. Although they are mostly eaten raw, they may be baked in their skins or sliced and deep-fried; or made into fritters, jam, pancakes, chips, even flour. The many ways in which bananas may be incorporated into dishes is limited only by the imagination.

Banana leaves, which are smooth, glossy, large, flexible, and waterproof are sometimes used as food containers or as "plates." Steamed with some banana dishes, they lend a subtle flavor. Conkies are cooked in banana leaves.


Initially, people in developed Western countries wrote off bananas as animal food. However, the value of the fruit is established all over the world. Bananas are known to contain significant amounts of vitamin B6, vitamin C, manganese and potassium.


Some people refer to bananas as “dessert bananas” because they are often used as or in desserts, distinguishing them from plantains, which are regarded as a type of banana.


Bananas of the size and general appearance of the Cavendish bananas seen in North American markets are called Cayenne bananas in Guyana and some locations in the Caribbean. The relatively small and plump bananas are called “baby bananas”. The larger baby bananas are called apple bananas, while the tiniest ones are called fig bananas. 


Beet, beetroot, garden beet
Scientific name: Beta vulgaris

Beets are grown as garden crops in the Caribbean.

The round, fleshy tap root, the part commonly used for food, is dark red in color. The root of beetroot is eaten boiled either as a cooked vegetable, or cold as a salad, alone or with other vegetables. It is also used in pickles.

Beet leaves are sometimes used as greens. They are mostly served boiled or steamed, and have a taste and texture close to spinach.

Beetroots are valued for their antioxidants and nutrients generally, which include magnesium, sodium, potassium and vitamin C, and betaine, regarded as important for cardiovascular health.


Bilimbi, Sourie, Kamaranga, Bimbling Plum, Cucumber (tree), Tree Sorrel
Scientific name: Averrhoa bilimbi

The bilimbi plant is a common backyard plant in the Caribbean. The mature fruits of the bilimbi (“bimbling plum” in Jamaica) resemble small cucumbers and usually range from 2 to 3 inches in length. They have a smooth, thin, green rind and a juicy very acid pulp, in which are embedded several small seeds, and turn yellowish they ripen.

The bilimbi is often cooked in curries and is used in place of sour fruits such as green mangoes, tamarind or even tomato. It is often pickled, used to make chutney or even jam.  

Fruits of the bilimbi are candied or cooked with sugar as a preserve. The pulp is also used to make a cooling drink. Children often eat it either raw, alone or with salt.

Bilimbis contain Vitamin C, calcium, phosphorus, and iron.



Black Eye Pea, Black-eyed pea
Scientific Name: Vigna sinensis, Vigna unguiculata


Beige in color, this bean has a black round “eye” at its inner curve. The dried seeds are used mostly as dried beans, and are a favorite in Guyanese cook-up and West Indian “peas and rice.” The pods of the black eye pea may also be cooked while green and tender.


More frequently, however, the pods are harvested when mature,  but before the seeds or the pods begin to become dry.


Black eye peas are very nutritious. In the United States, where they are called cowpeas, black eye peas were grown as fodder before they were accepted as food for humans.


Bora, Borah, Yard Beans, Bodi beans
Scienfic name: Vigna sesquipedalis

Bora is generally used as a fresh vegetable in the pod while still immature. Although bora is called yard bean, the pods are actually only about half a yard long. The crisp, crunchy, tender pods are eaten both fresh and cooked. They are at their best when young and slender. Bora is mostly cut into short sections for cooking uses. It makes a great stew, steamed or stir fried.  It tastes great with meat (including ground meat) or shrimp or added to chow mein.  Its similar to the string beans but with more of a crunch. 

Bora is a good source of  vitamin C, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, folate, iron, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, and manganese.


Boulanger, Baigan, Eggplant, Aubergine
Scientific name: Solanum melongena

Boulangers may be black, purple, green, white, striped, even red. They come in many shapes, sizes and colors. (Small white boulangers gave rise to the name “eggplant.”) However, varieties in the Caribbean are somewhat limited. They are spongy in texture and are generally  slightly bitter when uncooked.

They can be baked, stewed, roasted or steamed. They are often included in curry stir-fries. Increasingly, boulangers are used in sandwich fillings and they can be made into a dip for vegetables. Boulangers can also be artfully stuffed.

A favorite use of boulangers is for making “baigan choka,” which is highly seasoned, roasted boulangers mashed up and used with dishes such as dhall.


Boulangers are a good source of dietary fiber, potassium, manganese, copper, thiamin (vitamin B1), vitamin B6, folate, magnesium and niacin.


Breadfruit, Breadnut, and Jackfruit

Breadfruit, breadnut and jackfruit trees are close relatives, and resemble each other superficially. They all belong to the botanical genus known as Artocarpus. Their most significant differences lay in their fruits.  

Breadfruit
Scientific name:  (Artocarpus altilis, also Artocarpus communis)

 The fruits of most breadfruit varieties generally lack seeds, but have a cream-coloured fleshy starchy interior. The shape of the mature fruit is irregularly oval to round, (3 ½ to 18 inches) long and 2 to 12 inches in diameter. The outer skin is patterned with irregular 4- to 6-sided sections, more or less prominent, depending on the variety. There are numerous recipes for preparing the fruits, most of which involve baking, roasting, frying or boiling. Breadfruit is used as a vegetable, as chips, bread and even desserts.

Breadnut, katahar, chataigne (from the French  “chataignier”)
Scientific name: Artocarpus camansi, previously listed as Artocarpus altilis

The fruits of the breadnut are similar in size to the breadfruit. The shape is more oblong and the outer skin is rather spiny. The inside has little flesh, but contains numerous seeds. The seeds are eaten when boiled, steamed or roasted.

There are two main ways in which breadnuts are eaten. Small, immature breadnut fruits

are sliced and cooked as a vegetable in soups or stews. A favorite stew especially among Indo-Caribbean people is Katahar Curry, to use the Guyanese name. In Trinidad and Tobago, the same dish is called curry chataigne. In this dish, the basically bland immature nuts rely for their taste on the spices and coconut milk in which it is cooked. It is generally eaten with rice in homes and also at religious ceremonies.


 The other way of preparing breadnut seeds is by boiling or roasting the ripe seeds and eating them as a snack or as part of a salad or other dish.

Cooking breadnuts requires time and patience. A pressure cooker is definitely recommended.

Jackfruit, Jack Fruit

Scientific name: Artocarpus heterophyllus 

The jackfruit tree grows to an enormous size, and is handsome and stately. The fruit itself is the largest tree-borne fruit in the world, and may weigh as much as 80 pounds and be up to 36 inches long and 20 inches in diameter.

The color of the fruit changes from light green to yellow-brown as it matures.  It encloses 100 to 500 smooth, oval, light-brown seeds.

The pulp around the large seeds is the edible portion. Jackfruit pulp may be eaten fresh, mixed in fruit salads, cooked with rice or sugar and coconut milk, dried, or made into preserve. Jackfruit curry, jackfruit pickle and jackfruit with roti are common. The seeds can also be boiled or roasted and eaten, or added to soup. Immature fruit is boiled or fried. Pieces of it may be cooked in salted water until tender and then served.

Jackfruit contains vitamin A, vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, calcium, potassium, iron, sodium, zinc and niacin among many other nutrients. It is low in calories.



Broccoli
Scientific name: Brassica oleracea.

Broccoli is a plant with dense dark-green clusters of tight flower buds.  Broccoli heads are sometimes called curds. Related to cauliflower, it is one of the most popular vegetables with health-conscious people.

Broccoli is boiled, steamed, sautéed and stir fried. The heads are used mostly, but broccoli stems and leaves may also be cooked and eaten. To reduce its intestinal gas production, some people cook broccoli with ginger or garlic.


Broccoli is a powerhouse of nutrients. It is a good source of protein, vitamin E, thiamin, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, selenium, dietary fiber, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin K, vitamin B6, folate, potassium and manganese.


Bura-Bura, Bolo maka, Coconilla

Scientific name: Solanum stramoniifolium


The bura-bura plant is a member of the egg plant family and grows wild. The plant is armed with long sharp spines under the leaves and thorns on the stems. The small ½  inch to 1-inch smooth fruits resemble small tomatoes in appearance and taste, are yellow to red in color and are covered with a powdery coating. Some types are sweet when mature. The fruits are usually eaten out of hand, mostly by children, after rubbing them between the hands to remove the coating..


Cabbage
Scientific name:  Brassica oleracea var. capitata

This is the well-known cabbage plant, grown for use as a fresh salad or for cooking with meat or in soups. The tightly wrapped head is generally preferred. Corned beef and cabbage is a favorite.


Cacoa, cocoa
Scientific name: Theobroma cacoa

This is the plant from which chocolate, cacoa powder and cacoa butter are made. Seeds are collected from the cacoa pods and allowed to go through a fermentation process. The beans are then dried.

In the Caribbean, sticks of chocolate, roughly 6 inches long, are rolled by hand from ground or pounded cocoa beans and sold for making “chocolate tea,” as the resulting  morning’s hot beverage is called.  The sticks are dissolved in hot water and milk and sugar are added. Another method of preparing “chocolate tea” is by using chocolate lumps, prepared beforehand by mixing a heavy batter of flour, sugar, eggs and milk with very hot cocoa and allowing everything to harden. Chocolate lumps may be stored for later use. Chocolate tea is also called cocoa tea.


Calabaza, West Indian pumpkin, Caribbean pumpkin, Jamaican pumpkin, crapaudback
Scientific Name: Cucurbita moschata.

This is really a type of squash. It is generally heavy and comes in various sizes, from small to huge, and may be round, or of some other shape. The color of calabaza may range from green to tan to red, and the skin of a single calabaza may exhibit several colors. The flesh is most often orange in color, but could be yellow.

The taste and texture of calabaza resembles butternut squash. It is fairly sweet and offers many options. It is nutritious as well, being a good source of the vitamins A and C. One cup contains about 70 calories.

Calabaza may be boiled, baked or steamed, made into a paste, added to soups, served by itself, and generally put to many great uses in the kitchen.

It is tough-skinned, and for this reason calabaza may be sold already cut into sections. If you buy a whole one, you’ll need a very sharp heavy knife or a cleaver.


Callaloo, Calaloo, Calalu, kallaloo, bhaji, dasheen bush, Indian Kale

Scienfic name: (for taro/dasheen leaves) Xanthosoma
Scientific names: (for amaranth varieties) Amaranthus sp, Amaranthus dubius, Amaranth Tricolor


The term callaloo is used in two ways: (1) as the name of one of many types of leaf vegetable, and (2) as one of several dishes.

The variations are determined by the location in the Caribbean. The leaf vegetable may be the edible young green leaves of the taro (dasheen) plant, vegetable amaranth or other leafy vegetables.

Guyana
In Guyana, callaloo refers to several varieties of spinach (bhaji), also vegetable amaranth.
Jamaica
Jamaicans use the name callaloo to refer to amaranth, and use it in many dishes.
Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidadians primarily use taro or dasheen leaves as callaloo.  Callaloo is mostly served as a side dish to accompany more substantial dishes.
Barbados
Callaloo is made from the leaves of the dasheen plant (also called dasheen bush)

Callaloo dishes may also include okra (ochro),coconut milk, ground provisions, crab, conch, lobster, various kinds of meat, chili peppers, onions, garlic and other seasonings. The dish may also be used as a stew to be eaten with rice.


Carambola, Five Finger, Star Fruit

Scientific name: Averrhoa carambola


Carambola fruits, with ridges running down its sides (between 3and 6, but usually five) reveals a cross-section resembling star, hence the name star fruit. They are lime green when immature and turn golden yellow when ripe.

Carambolas are crisp, juicy and aromatic, but usually acid in taste. However, one form is called “sweet carambola” because the acid taste is absent.

Carambolas can be eaten at different stages both ripe and unripe.  Ripe carambolas can be eaten out-of-hand, or sliced and served in salads. They are also used in tarts, stewed fruits, jellies, chutneys, garnishes and even curries. Ripe fruits are used for preserves, jams and jellies. They may be dried and used as one would use currants and raisins in fruit cakes. The fruit is often added to smoothies, but by itself, carambola juice can be served as a cooling beverage.

Carambola is rich in antioxidants and vitamin C and low in sugar, sodium and acid.



Carila, carilla, karila, karela, bitter melon, bitter gourd, cerasee

Scientific name:  Momordica charantia


The  warty, oblong fruit of the carila vine is bitter. It is green when young and immature, and yellow when ripe. The fruit is hollow and much like a cucumber in shape. It is eaten green, or as it is beginning to turn yellow.


Carila is used generally after boiling in salt water to remove some of the bitterness. It is cooked and eaten a numerous ways. Often, it is cooked with meat, or is stuffed with meat, especially ground meat. Curried carila is a favorite. It is also deep fried, or used in soups.

Carila contains iron, beta carotene, potassium, vitamins A, C, B1, B3, and is a good source of fibre. 

(See also Carila (Bitter melon) and Diabetes)



Carrot

Scientific name: Daucus carota subsp. sativus


The plant is grown for its long, slender, fleshy tap root. This root vegetable is yellow in color, though there are red, white and yellow varieties.


Carrots are crisp when fresh. They may be used raw in salads, or cooked alone or with other vegetables or meats. They can be boiled, fried or steamed, and used in soups and stews. Grated carrots are used in carrot cakes and carrot puddings.


Carrots contain the deep yellow carotenoids that produce vitamin A. Cooking helps release the carotenoids so that they could be metabolized in the body. Carrots are also rich in dietary fibre, antioxidants, and minerals.


Cassava, yucca, manioc, casaba, cassada

Scientific name: Manihot esculenta


Cassava is cultivated for its long and tapered starchy root. It is classified as sweet or bitter depending on the level of toxic cyanogenic glucosides. Many farmers however prefer to grow the bitter varieties because they have special uses and deter animals, pests and thieves.

 Cassava must be cooked properly to detoxify it before it is eaten. Boiled, it can replace potatoes. It is often a component of the Guyana metagee. It is boiled, steamed and deep fried much like potatoes. Other popular products to come out of the kitchen are cassava pone, cassava chips and cassava bread

Cassareep is boiled juice from cassava of the bitter variety. The traditional Amerindian way is to express the juice from grated cassava in a matapee before boiling. A thick syrup, casareep is the basis of Guyana pepperpot, but is also used for flavoring other dishes. Tapioca is made from dried cassava and used as a thickener and for making puddings.

Cassava roots are very rich in starch, and contain calcium, phosphorus and vitamin C. However, they contain little protein or other nutrients.


Caterpillar callaloo, calalu, bhaji
Scientific name: Amaranthus dubius

This plant is often found growing wild, but is also cultivated. The dull green leaves and young stems are used as a spinach.


Cauliflower
Scientific name: Brassica oleracea var. botrytis


The cauliflower head is a cluster of flower buds that stopped developing. The head is denser and more compact that the head of the broccoli, to which it is related. Most cauliflower heads grown in the Caribbean are white, but they may also be  lime green or purple.


The head, with its florets (flower buds) are what people eat most often, but the stem and leaves are also edible. Cauliflower is more creamy and nutty than broccoli. It is served raw, steamed, or boiled. When raw, it may be eaten on its own or with a dip, or as part of a salad. When cooked, it may be eaten alone, as a side dish, or with a sauce. It may also be cooked in soups, stews, stir fries, pasta, and omelets.


Cauliflower is a good source of vitamins C and K, potassium, fiber, phosphorus, B vitamins, complex carbohydrates and the trace mineral boron.



Celery

Scientific name:  Apium graviolens

The aromatic leaf stalks of celery are eaten raw or cooked   Both stalks and seeds are  popular in flavoring foods. The brown seeds are used either whole or ground.


Celery is used numerous ways. It is a staple in many soups (such as chicken noodle soup), curries, and Chinese dishes that are popular in the Caribbean.

Celery provides vitamin C, fiber, folic acid, potassium, and vitamins B1, B2 and B6. It also contains sodium, which does not seem to harm sodium-sensitive people. It is not clear why. The seeds are a good source of calcium.


Cherry, Barbados Cherry, West Indian Cherry
Scientific name: Malpighia punicifolia

Ripe cherries are bright red, juicy, and usually quite acid. They are often eaten out-of-hand, mainly by children, who when the cherries are not fully ripe eat them with salt and pepper. Cherries make great preserves, jellies and jams. They are also stewed with sugar to make desserts. Straining the stew separates the seeds from the pulp and the remaining sauce or puree can be used as a topping for cakes, ice creams, puddings, or other fruit. Cherries can also be used in gelatin desserts, punch or sherbet. Wine is also made from cherries.

The fruit is perhaps the richest edible fruit source of  Vitamin C. It also contains Vitamin A,   niacin, riboflavin, and thiamin.     


Chives

Scientific name: Allium schoenoprasum.


Chives are the smallest species of the onion family. The bulbs are conical in shape and grow in clusters. The leaves are green, hollow, tubular and resemble grass.


They are used as garnish and flavoring in salads and for seasoning fish, eggs, potatoes, soups and stews. The mauve-colored flowers are edible.



 Coconut  

Scientific name:  Cocos nucifera


The term “coconut” can refer to the entire coconut palm tree, the seed, or the fruit. Here, we deal with the fruit, which is in fact the same as the seed. In passing, it is worthwhile to mention that people in many parts of the world have found ways to use virtually every part of the coconut palm tree for some useful purpose. This is why it has been called "The Tree of Life."


The coconut grows in every part of the Caribbean. Its light weight when mature, its buoyancy and resistance to water damage combine to allow easy and wide dispersal by way of the currents of the sea.


There is nutrition in the meat, juice (coconut water), milk and oil of the coconut. The green or immature nut contains the coconut water, which provides a pleasant and refreshing cool drink.  Coconut water becomes gradually denser and sweeter as it turns into meat. The meat, when tender and jellylike, is eaten uncooked, often spooned out of the shell. As it matures, it becomes hard.  


After the nut is mature, the coconut meat can be grated and strained to obtain a thick, white, creamy liquid, called coconut milk, which can be used as a substitute for cream in desserts and other foods. Coconut milk is also a primary ingredient in callaloo, the Caribbean dish of spinach, okra, meat and seafood. It also features in soups, stews, sauces and curries


The flesh is also used to make coconut choka - an Indian chutney made from roasted coconut, ground to a paste with garlic, onion, and hot pepper, with green mangoes or tamarind to give it a sour taste.


Coconuts are also used in sweet baked goods such as coconut bread, coconut buns, rock cakes and tarts. A children’s favorite, coconut sugar cake, is made from grated coconut, sugar and spices. Coconut pudding is also made.


Coconut oil, once widely considered unhealthy because of its high saturated fat content, now enjoys some respect as a health food – provided it is virgin coconut oil. However, coconut oil generally appears in processed foods in the hydrogenated form, which may not be healthy.


Coconut contains moderate amounts of potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, iron and fiber. Coconut water has the lowest amount of fat calories. The calorie content in coconut milk is relatively high.



Cucumber

Scientific name: Cucumis sativus


The cucumber plant is a vine that grows easily and is widely cultivated.

Most of the time cucumbers are eaten fresh in the unripe and green state. They are often used to make salads, but are also stewed and eaten like squash. Cucumbers are also pickled or stuffed.

Cucumbers can also be used to make refreshing drinks – usually with lime juice and sugar. They are also used to make wine.

Fresh cucumbers are a good source of Vitamin C and Vitamin A. They also contain calcium and potassium.



Dasheen, Eddoe, Taro, Cocoyam, Elephant Ear

Scientific name: Colocasia esculenta

Dasheen, a tuberous root, is one of the ground provisions. So is eddoe, a smaller variety not very affected by high water levels in the soil. It is used much like the potato, but has its own texture and flavor. The skin of dasheen is brown. When peeled, it is white.

Dasheen contains calcium oxalate crystals which are extremely irritating to the mucous membrane, therefore it must be well cooked before it is eaten.

Dasheen is often boiled and eaten by itself, served with meat or saltfish, or with a rice dish such as fried rice. It may also be fried and eaten with meat or butter, be part of a soup (eddoe soup is a great favorite), or an item in the Guyanese metagee (metem). The leaves of the plant, called dasheen bush, are used in the making of the popular Caribbean dish called callaloo. Some people stew the leaves and eat the stew (dasheen bush bhaji) with rice.

Dasheen contains Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Calcium, Iron, Vitamin E, Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Folate, Vitamin B-6, Potassium,Phosphorus, Magnesium, Zinc, and Copper


Eggplant : See Boulanger


Genip, Guinep, Waya

Scientific name: Melicocca bijuga


Genips grow in bunches of green round fruit, each measuring a little over 1 inch in length. Genips are eaten out of hand.  The fruits have tight, thin skins which are either torn open at the stem and popped into the mouth or  cracked open with the teeth and sucked into the mouth whole. Surrounding the seed inside lies a thin layer of yellow gelatinous pulp that is generally both sweet and sour. The pulp is sucked for its juice until only fiber is left, though in some fruits the pulp just seems to melt away. Genips are a good source of iron. Some people roast genip seeds and eat them..



Ground provisions

This is a Caribbean term for a number of vegetable food such as yams, cassava, dasheen, tania, breadfruit, plantains etc.


Jackfruit, Jack fruit
Scientific name: Artocarpus heterophyllus

The jackfruit tree produces the largest of all tree-borne fruits. The inside has 100 to 500 light-brown seeds. The unopened ripe fruit emits a somewhat unpleasant odour, but the pulp of the opened fruit smells of pineapple and banana.


The seeds can be roasted, and when boiled the flesh of fully grown unripe fruit can be eaten as a vegetable. Though the outer skin of a jackfruit and its interior resembles that of a breadnut fruit, it grows much larger and can weigh somewhere between 10 to 80 pounds.



Ghingi, Loofah, Jhingey

Scientific name: Luffa acutangula


Ghingi fruit (vegetable) resembles a cucumber with ridges. It is a dark green vegetable on the outside with white pulp and white seeds in spongy flesh. It is edible, but must be consumed before it matures and becomes too woody and fibrous to eat. Mature ghingi  fruits are processed to remove everything but the fibers to make bath, kitchen or general cleaning sponges.


Ghingi is stewed and used in dal or to make a curry. It is also put into soups, or boiled and eaten with hot sauce, or fried with meat.


Ghinji contains calcium, iron, potassium, vitamin A, B vitamins, and vitamin C.


Green Seasoning

Green seasoning is unique to the Caribbean. It is a blend of herbs used in the kitchen and varies from territory to territory with personal touches evident from kitchen to kitchen. Green seasoning may include chives, shado beni or cilantro, thyme, oregano, parsley, garlic, vinegar processed in a food processor or blender, or manually, and either used immediately or tightly sealed in a glass jar. If no vinegar is used, it is generally kept as a thick paste.  It keeps in the refrigerator for about one week.


Guava, Guyaba

Scientific name:  Psidium guajava


The fruit is a berry which may be round or oval in shape. It may be 1 to 4 inches in diameter, green when immature, and white, yellow or pinkish in color when ripe. The ripe fruit may range in flavor from sweet to sour.


Guavas are generally eaten as a fresh desert fruit, but they are also used to make drinks, jam, jelly, paste, nectar, puree, beverage base, syrup or wine.

Guavas are rich in dietary fiber, vitamins A and C, folic acid, potassium, copper and manganese.


Jamoon, Jamun
Scientific name: Syzygium cumin

The purple to black shiny Jamoon fruit grow in bunches on tall and large trees and look like grapes when ripe. The juice is sweet with some tartness in it.

Children love to eat jamoons with salt. The pulp is used to make preserves, sauces, jams and tarts. They can also be made into sherbets, sorbets, syrups or pulpy drinks.  They are also used to make wine (especially for Christmas) and even vinegar.

Jamoons are a very good source of Vitamin C and the skin has antioxidant properties.

The juice produces a stain that is notoriously hard to remove from fabric.



Kinna

A term used to refer to a  food to which one is allergic, or which one avoids because one finds it very disagreeable. The term is not standard English, and might be heard in a statement such as: “Pumpkin is me kinna.”



Lettuce

Scientific name: Lactuca sativa


Lettuce is mainly a salad vegetable, usually served raw with tomatoes and cucumbers. It is also included in sandwiches. There are numerous varieties. As a rule, the darker green the leaves the more the nutrients. All lettuce is low in calories. Most of it is rich in calcium, iron and vitamins A and C.


Lime, West Indian Lime, Mexican Lime, Key Lime
Scientific name: Citrus aurantifolia

Limes are small citrus fruits, oval in shape with a thin rind. They are juicy and acidic, yellow when ripe but usually picked green for commercial purposes.  

Limes are extensively used in flavoring soft drinks at home and for the manufacture of limeades and other beverages. They are also used to flavor confectionery, ice cream, sherbets, and other food products. They are often made into jams, jellies and marmalade and the chopped peel is made into a sweetmeat with milk and coconut.

Limes may also be pickled in salt and vinegar, used in flavoring fish and meats, in making other marinades, and also for garnishing plates.

They contain calcium, phosphorus, iron, Vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, and famously for ascorbic acid (Vitamin C).

They are also used in the cosmetic industry to produce lotions and skin-conditioners. Limacol is an example. The oil from the peel is utilized in the perfume industry.


Mamey, Mamey apple

Scientific name: Mamea Americana


Mamey fruit is ovoid, 3 to 8 inches in diameter, with a rough brown skin. It encloses 1 to 4 large seeds embedded in flesh that is reddish when mature. The flesh is sweet with a flavor resembling apricot.

You can eat mamey by itself, or in fruit salads, desserts, milk shakes and other fruit drinks. Some Jamaicans steep the flesh in wine and sugar before eating it. The flesh may also be stewed with sugar, sliced and cooked in pies, tarts and muffins or made into preserves.

It's high in vitamins A and C and potassium, and is an excellent source of dietary fiber.

In many locations, mamey has been suspected of being toxic. However, most people just go on eating it and regard the claim about toxicity to be just superstition. The likely explanation of its suspected toxicity may be that some people are allergic to it.


Mango

Scientific name: Mangifera indica


The mango is a much-loved fruit throughout the Caribbean. It consists of an outer skin, a fleshy edible portion and a stone enclosing a single seed. Mangoes come in various sizes, varying from 2 to 6 inches or more in length and, in weight, from a few ounces to a pound or more.

Mangoes are often eaten out of hand as fresh fruit (firm to juicy).They may also be sliced and eaten off a plate.

You can roll some types of mango between your palms, applying pressure at the same time, so that the flesh gets pulped. You can then bite or cut a hole in the skin and neatly suck the contents out. Mangoes which lend themselves to this treatment are sometimes called “sucking mangoes.” This is a mostly Caribbean method of enjoying mangoes.

Mangoes are also cooked, frozen and dried. They can be used green, half-ripe or fully ripe. Some people, especially children, peel and slice mangoes and eat the slices with sugar and salt. Peeled and sliced ripe mangoes are served as a salad, as a desert, or with ice cream. In any of these formulations, mangoes blend well with many other fruits.

Mangoes may be used to flavor ice cream or, as a puree to serve over ice cream.

They are used in pies, tarts, shortcakes, nutbread and other baked goods. They are also used to make chutneys, jams, jellies, preserves, sauces, pickles and spreads. They are also cooked in curries. Whole mangoes may also be canned.

Mangoes come in various shapes, colors, flavors and consistency of flesh. They may be oval or round or kidney shaped. They are green when immature, but, depending on the species, when they are ripe the outer skin may be yellow, orange, red, purplish or combinations of these colors.

Most ripe mangoes are sweet. The basic sweet mango taste may hint at other fruits such as peach, coconut, pineapple, berry, even lime. The consistency of flesh may range between smooth-and-melting and firm-and-fibrous, between light and dense.  

Every Caribbean territory has its own favorites. Jamaica has its Julie, Bombay and Haden. Guyana has its Buxton Spice, Long Mango and Turpentine. The varieties are numerous.

Mangoes are a good source of Vitamins A, C and B6 and also of fiber. They are also low in saturated fat, sodium and cholesterol.

 

Mung Bean, Black Gram, Green Gram

Scientific name: Phaseolus aureus


Mung beans are grown for use as a dried bean, for making bean sprouts and for other food preparations such as dhal. The beans with yellow seeds are called mung beans, and another with green seeds called green grams.

Low in fat content, mung beans contain Vitamin A, Vitamin B, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Calcium, Iron, and Potassium. They are much valued by vegans.


Muskmelon
Scientific name: Cucumis melo

The types of  muskmelon vary from cantaloupes to casaba melons and include those with netted skin, listed as cantaloupes, and those with smooth skins, like honeydew melons.

The skins of true cantaloupes (Cucumis melo 'cantaloupensis') are rough and warty, while muskmelon (Cucumis melo 'reticulatus') have a netting on the fruit rind. However, the fruits may not be accurately labeled in the market.

Muskmelons have a significantly high nutritional value, resulting in a number of health benefits. They boast significant amounts of Vitamin C, Vitamin A, B Vitamins, Magnesium, Potassium, Fiber and are low in calories


They are eaten raw as a snack, as a fruit side dish, or with other fruits in a salad. They are also used in beverages, and are pureed for use in ice cream and sorbets. Muskmelons are great in hot weather.


Mustard, Mustard callaloo, Chinese mustard, Mustard cabbage

Scientific name: Brassica juncea


Sometimes called mustard greens, this is a leafy vegetable, much like lettuce, and is used for cooking and for spice. The leaves are irregular in shape, rough, and covered with short stiff hairs.


Mustard is related to greens such as kale and cabbage, and is treated as such in the kitchen. However, mustard is distinctly peppery. It tastes much like spinach when cooked, but with more body.  


Among its many nutrients, mustard contains vitamin K, vitamin A (in the form of beta-carotene), vitamin C, folate, and vitamin E, manganese, calcium. It is also a good source of dietary fiber.



Ninwah

Scientific name:  Luffa cylindrica


This is the same as Ghingi, without the ridges.



Ochro, Okro, Okra

Scientific Name: Hibiscus esculentus


The fruits of the ochro plant are long ridged capsules, ending in a sharp point. Ochroes are light green in color and covered with hairs. They are relatively easy to grow.


Ochroes are generally used when young and tender. They may be boiled alone or in soups, stewed, or fried in thin slices. Stews may be made with vegetables and meat. Soups are sometimes eaten with fish. When cooked, ochro gives off a thickening goo or slime, which some people like. However, the slime may be reduced by cooking ochroes with tomatoes, citrus or vinegar.


Ochroes contain vitamins B6 and C, fiber, calcium, and folic acid. It is low in calories. 


Pak Choi, Chinese Cabbage, Bok Choi

Scientific name:  Brassica chinensis

Pak choi is a Chinese cabbage, popular in Asian dishes all over the world, and is also a favorite in the Caribbean.

Pak Choi can be eaten raw either by itself or in a salad, but is more usually cooked without water, over a low heat, with previously cooked meat. According to the experts, the smaller cabbages are sweeter than the larger ones.


Pak choi contains a high amount of Vitamin A and also Vitamin C.



Pawpaw, Papaya

Scientific name:  Carica papaya


Pawpaws in the market are round or pear-shaped, may be between 7 and 20 inches in length, and weigh 8 to 10 pounds or more.


As the fruit matures, the color changes from green to orange. The ripe fruit has orange to red colored flesh. The center is hollow, with small round rough black seeds in their individual sacks attached to the inner surface

The pawpaw is usually eaten raw, after it is cut open and the seeds are scooped out. In addition to its use as a desert fruit, immature papaya may be grated and used as a fresh vegetable in salads. Pawpaw nectar, made with the addition of honey and other ingredients, is a great favorite.

Green (immature) pawpaws are also cooked and add a sweet flavor to chicken or fish dishes. A few pieces of the fruit added to a stew tenderize the meat. This happens because the enzyme papain in the pawpaw break down the fibers in meats. In fact, papain is so powerful that when pawpaw leaves are wrapped around meats the meats are tenderized even before cooking. 

The pectin in pawpaws serves as a natural thickener. The unripe flesh is also chunked for use in curries and stews. Pawpaw chutney is a jam. Pawpaw pickle is also made.

People who consume a lot of pawpaw may find that their soles and palms become yellow – a harmless condition called carotenemia.


Among the valued nutrients contained in pawpaws are Vitamin C, folate, potassium, Vitamin E, and Vitamin A,



Pepper

Scientific name: Capiscum frutescens


Peppers grown in Caribbean gardens may be divided into two types: the large, fleshy, mild-flavored sweet peppers used in salads and the hot peppers used in curries and other foods. These types are shown below.


Sweet Pepper, Bell Pepper

Scientific name: Capiscum frutescens Var.grossum


These are the large, sweet, bell-shaped, peppers used as a vegetable. They are thick, fleshy, and somewhat four-sided with a longitudinal depression on each side. The succulent fruit contain many light-colored flattened seeds. Another type is a long cylindrical pointed pod, not as fleshy as the bell type. The fruit changes from dark shiny green to orange or red on maturity.


Sweet peppers, come in a wide variety of colors and have a mild, sweet flavor and a crisp, fresh texture.


Apart from serving bell peppers in salads, they are stuffed, roasted, added to soups, and used in numerous other ways. It’s a darling of vegans.


Sweet peppers are low in calories and contain Vitamin A,  carotenoids,  Vitamin C and  Vitamin K.



Chili, Hot Pepper
Scientific name: Capiscum frutescens Var. longum


Hot peppers vary in size, shape, color and pungency. Among the hottest of the hot peppers used in the Caribbean is the scotch bonnet (Capsicum chinense) . Bird pepper is also very hot.  The jalapeño pepper is fairly hot. Some people contend that Guyana grows the hottest peppers in the Caribbean area. Each has its own distinctive flavor.

Among the smaller hot peppers are the Marawiri (or Maiwiri),  ¼  to 1/3 inch in diameter and the Wiriwiri, 1/3 to 5/8 inch in diameter, and less hot than the Marawiri.


 Bird Pepper is cylindrical and ¾  to 1 inch in length and quite hot. Other larger types up to 4 inches in length and 1 ¼  to 2 inches in width vary in degree of  pungency, but are all very hot. The color at maturity could be red, yellow, pale green, or orange.


Hot peppers are widely used in Caribbean cooking as an ingredient and as a condiment at table.


 Some common examples of hot pepper use are with sardines, in jerk dishes, in scrambled eggs, with cook-up rice, to make pepper sauce (hot sauce), in garlic pork, to make pepper wine (wiri wiri), wiri wiri in crab backs, pepper oil (a real scorcher), in souse, in chutneys and curries. Some people use pepper leaves as greens.


Hot peppers contain high amounts of vitamin C, carotene, B vitamins, potassium, magnesium, and iron.



Pigeon Pea, Dhal, Toor Dal, Arhar Dal, Congo Pea, Gungo Pea , Dholl, Dahl

Scientific name: Cajanus cajan

Pigeon peas are used as dried peas, green vegetable peas or flour. They are a favorite stewed, curried, in Guyana’s cook-up rice, in Trinidad’s famous pelau, in soups, and as dhal. In Trinidad, the pigeon pea is traditionally grown in time to be harvested for Christmas.

Pigeon peas are nutritious and an important source of protein, particularly in a mostly vegetarian diet. Apart from their high levels of protein, pigeon peas contain Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Calcium, Iron, Zinc, Phosphorus, and Magnesium. 



Plantain

Scientific name: Musa balbisiana   (formerly musa paradisiaca)

Plantains and bananas resemble each other, but plantains tend to be larger. There is no formal botanical distinction between them. In  North America the fruit was first introduced as banana plantain,

Plantains are generally firmer, starchier and lower in sugar content than bananas. While bananas are most often eaten raw, plantains need to be cooked or otherwise processed, and are used either when green and unripe, ripe or overripe.

Green unripe plantains are cooked by boiling, frying, steaming, or baking.  Because by themselves they are bland in taste, green plantains are usually eaten with fish (especially saltfish), meat, various stews such as curries or added to soups. They are boiled, baked or mashed in much the same way as potatoes, or pounded into foo-foo (fu-fu) using mortar and pestle.

Plantains are also dried and ground into flour.  Plantain chips, sweet or salty, are popular as snacks and appetizers. After removing the skin, the unripe fruit can be sliced and deep-fried in hot oil to produce chips.

As the plantain ripens, it becomes sweeter and its color changes from green to yellow to black, just like its cousin the banana.  Steam-cooked plantains are considered a nutritious food for infants and the elderly.

Plantain leaves are similar to banana leaves, but are larger and stronger. Traditionally, plantain leaves have been used like plates. They also have religious significance in many Hindu rituals.


Poi, Calalu, Callaloo, Bhaji, Poi Baagi, Thick Leaf Callaloo
Scientific name: Basella alba

An easy-to-grow, soft-stemmed vine, with thick leaves.  Its thick, heart-shaped leaves have a mild flavor, much like spinach.

Poi is low in calories but high in vitamin A, vitamin C, iron, calcium and fiber. It is used as a stew and sometimes to thicken soups.


Poi, Calalu, Callaloo, Bhaji, Poi Baagi, Thick Leaf Callaloo
Scientific name: Basella rubra

Practically the same as Poi (Basella Alba), but the stems are purplish.


Pumpkin
Scientific name: Cucurbita maxima

The people of the Caribbean exploit the versatility of pumpkins. These hardy plants grow practically anywhere and are  easy to find growing wild.

 As most parts of the pumpkin are edible, people use the shell, seeds, leaves, and even the flowers. Mature pumpkins are boiled, baked, steamed, or roasted. Small green pumpkins are sometimes eaten like squash. Pumpkin soup and pumpkin curry are established favorites.

Pumpkins are loaded with good nutrients including the antioxidant beta-carotene, calcium, iron, magnesium, potassium, zinc, selenium, niacin, folate, and vitamins A, C, and E. There are only  50 calories and 3 grams of fiber in a cup of pumpkin.

 A few people are allergic to pumpkin and avoid it. Because the allergy results in unsightly skin, people once wrongly feared it might cause leprosy. In Guyana, people who are allergic to pumpkin may tell you that pumpkin is their “kinna.”


Radish,

Scientific name: Raphanus sativus


The radish is a fleshy, edible tap root with a crown of variously shaped small leaves. The root, which is crisp, pungent and peppery  is used as a salad or in flavoring foods.



Rice
Scientific name:  Oryza sativa

Rice, a cereal grain, is the most important staple food in the Caribbean. Brown rice (rice with only the husk removed) is the most nutritious form of milled rice. However, most of the rice sold is white rice. To produce white rice, milling is done beyond just removal of the husk. The bran (a thin brown outer layer under the husk) and the germ (the reproductive part of the rice) are removed. White rice has a longer shelf life, but is significantly less nutritious than brown rice.

Parboiled rice is brown rice that is steamed. Steaming causes nutrients from the outer husk, especially thiamine, to be absorbed into the grain itself.

The protein in rice, while good, is not complete, as it does not contain all of the essential amino acids in sufficient quantities. For this reason, rice is generally eaten with other protein foods, especially beans.

The popular “rice and peas” of the Caribbean uses many types of beans such as yellow split peas and black-eyed peas (beans), red kidney beans, pigeon peas etc. Many of these dishes include various forms of meat. Guyanese “cook-up” depends heavily on meat.

Rice porridge is also a favorite.



Saeme, Seim, Sem, Lablab, Greenbean, Butterbean
Scientific name: Dolichos lablab var

People love the young immature pods of saeme and cook and eat them as they would tender green beans. They have a strong, beany flavor which some people like to tone down and would therefore mix saeme with other beans or green vegetables. Saeme is boiled, stewed, and used in stir fries. Saeme curry is famous.


 When they become more mature, these beans acquire fibrous strings on the sides. Some people remove these strings as the beans are being prepared.  Others leave the strings in place as they provide fiber to the diet.

Extra: The vine of the saeme bean bears beautiful, fragrant flowers that attract butterflies and hummingbirds and is a good idea for a quick yard fence. It grows fast too.


 Soursop, Sour Sop, Graviola, Guanabana

 Scientific name:Annona muricata

The soursop fruit is a special favorite in the Caribbean. This heart-shaped fruit, between 6 and 9 inches long and weighing about 5 pounds, has a rough green skin with soft fleshy spines.

Fruits are picked when their dark green color changes to yellow green. Usually the fruits are taken from the tree when they mature and left to ripen in a dark corner. They are generally ready for use in 1 to 3 days, but must be handled with care to avoid bruising.

The flesh of the mature fruit is juicy and is sweet to slightly acidic with what tastes like a blend of fruit flavors.  It is often eaten raw when it ripens, typically cut into chunks. It may also be added to salads or fruit cups, or pureed with sugar, milk or cream. The numerous experiments done with soursop include its use in ice cream and blended juices and the addition of cinnamon, lemon peel, nutmeg, sugar, wine, rum, brandy, milk, added gelatin, and the like are freely explored.

The fragrant soursop flavor blends well with other fruits such as bananas and pineapple.

The fruit also contains significant amounts of vitamin C, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, dietary fiber, calcium, potassium and phosphorus.  

However be careful to exclude the seeds. Crushed seeds are toxic


Shallot, Eschallot, Seasoning
Scientific name: Allium ascalonicum

This is a kind of onion composed of clusters of small bulbs. The leaves are hollow, relatively short, and pointed at the ends. Although shallots taste like onions they have a sweeter, milder, more complex flavor.

 The people of the Caribbean cultivate shallots extensively for use in many aspects of everyday cooking and for use in pickles. Shallots enhance the flavor of dishes such as fried rice. In fact, it is so widely used many call it by the name “seasoning.” A pickle of raw shallots together with cucumbers in mild vinegar solution is common.


Squash

Scientific name: Lagenaria vulgaris


A member of the gourd family, this plant is relatively easy to grow and may even be found growing wild.


It is steamed, baked, and stewed. By itself, it does not have a strong flavor but is insipid, and so young squash is generally cut up and cooked with other foods, especially meat.


With the addition of sugar and pectin, it has been made into jams and jellies and flavored to resemble pineapple or other fruit.


Squash is mostly water and is therefore a low-calorie food. It is also a good source of vitamin C and potassium.


Star Apple, Starapple, Cainito, Caimito

Scientific name: Chrysophyllum cainito


This is a round, oblong or pear shaped fruit that may be up to 4 inches in diameter with light green or dark purple, smooth and leathery skin. The common name of the fruit is derived from the starlike appearance of the core when the fruit across the middle. The tough skin surrounds a light purplish to white sweet edible pulp containing small hard, brown, glossy seeds.


Star apples can be eaten right off the tree. The pulp is relished as a fresh dessert fruit, but the skin, which contains an unpleasant-tasting latex, must be removed. The pulp is sometimes used in making preserves.

An old way to use star apples is to make a drink used as dessert, called  matrimony. It is a blend of star apples, oranges or grapefruit, heavy cream or condensed milk, and sugar if necessary.


Sweet Potato

Scientific name: Ipomoea batatas

The sweet potato is an important, well-loved root vegetable. The tuberous root is what people eat in the main, but the young leaves and shoots are sometimes eaten as greens.

 It is not closely related to the common potato, nor is it to be confused with yams, as is the case in the United States.

Sweet potatoes can be boiled, broiled, roasted, baked, fried and grilled. They are excellent for salads, soups, casseroles, side dishes, entrees, even breads and baked goods.

They are enjoyed when served plain, but are part of numerous complex dishes. They are also suitable for canning; and sweet potato dishes generally stand up well to refrigeration and freezing.  

The sweet potato is a powerhouse of nutrition, being a rich source of vitamin A, vitamin C, iron, copper, manganese, vitamin E, vitamin B6 and fiber.


Tamarind

Scientific name: Tamarindus indica


The fruit, which often gets pronounced “tambran,” is a straight or curved brown pod from 2 to 6 inches in length and up to 1 inch in width. At maturity the thick, dark-colored, acid pulp shrinks from the shell, which becomes brittle. The pulp is used to prepare an acid drink and in making preserves and sauces. The edible leaves and flowers of the tamarind are also sour and are eaten fresh in salads or cooked in curry or chutneys.


Tamarind balls, made of tamarind pulp, perhaps flour, sugar, salt, and perhaps pepper, are a  great favorite, especially among children.


Sweet-tasting varieties of tamarind are known, but are not common in the Caribbean.


Tannia, Cocoyam

Scientific name: Xanthosoma sagittifolium


Tannia tubers are cooked and eaten as you would eat yams or potatoes. The cream, yellow or pink flesh is crisp in texture and somewhat nutty in taste.  The skin of the uncooked tannia is brown and hairy. Tubers weigh between  1/2 and 2 pounds, but may be heavier.


They are often cooked in soups and stews. They may also be eaten grilled, fried, or puréed. The young leaves may be boiled or used in soups and stews.


Tomato
Scientific name: Lycopersicon esculentum

Everyone knows the ubiquitous tomato. The typically red fruit (also called a vegetable for culinary purposes) comes in varying sizes, colors and shapes.

 Tomatoes are eaten raw or cooked and are also preserved. They are an ingredient in many dishes, sauces, and drinks. They are used to make tomato soups and stews, to top off hamburgers and all kinds of sandwiches, in salads and scrambled eggs etc.

When tomatoes are plentiful, they may be preserved as tomato juice, paste, sauce, ketchup and sun-dried tomatoes.

They are rich in vitamins A, B, C, E and K and in Potassium, Phosphorus, Magnesium and Calcium. The fruit is also rich in lycopene.

Growing tomatoes is not difficult, however they have many enemies. There are well over 7000 tomato varieties..


Watercress

Scientific name: Nasturtium officinale


Watercress a member of the mustard family plant with small, crisp, dark green leaves giving it its distinctive look. It is valued for the  special peppery flavour it adds to foods..

Watercress is used in salads, sandwiches, soups, garnishes and a variety of dishes.

It contains significant amounts of vitamins K, A, and C, and also calcium, iron, magnesium, potassium, thiamin, riboflavin and folate.



Watermelon

Scientific name: Citrullus lanatus


A favorite on hot days, the watermelon is sweet and juicy and reddish to pink on the inside. The fruit is mostly eaten raw, but is also used in salads, mostly fruit salads, or as a dessert. It contains about 6% sugar and 92% water by weight.


Watermelons vary in shape. They may be round or oblong with white, black or brown seeds. The color of the skin varies from light to dark green and may be striped, marbled or solid.


Apart from carbohydrates, they contain calcium, phosphorous, vitamin C, beta carotene, and lycopene. They are also mildly diuretic.



Yam

Scientific name: Discorea spp.


The yam is not related to the sweet potato and is never sweet. The texture is floury and somewhat dry. The flavor is bland to nutty.


Yams provide a good source of calories. The flesh may be white, ivory or, in some varieties, purple. Under the skin, they look somewhat like the white potato and can be used like potatoes, though the consistency is different.  They may be baked or boiled, or put to use in many other imaginative ways.


Yams may reach a weight of 10 to 20 pounds.  They may keep well if stored in a dry, dark, cool and well ventilated place. If harvested at full maturity they may last for several months.


In Guyana, popular varieties of yams include Hard Yam, Buck Yam and Bell Yam. A good list of yams in the Caribbean may be found by clicking here.


In the United States the sweet potato is often called yam.





Vegetables, Fruits, Herbs and Seasonings
 of the Caribbean

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